Orientador: Prof. Dr. Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer

Data da Defesa: 23/09/2011



 INTRODUCTION. Perilla frutescens (perilla) is a plant grown and consumed in several Asian countries, whose seeds are rich in lipids and proteins. The major fatty acid present in the total lipids of perilla is alpha-linolenic acid, which is an essential fatty acid to the human body, belonging to the omega-3 family. Benefits related to the consumption of alpha-linolenic acid correspond to the evolution of brain activity and nervous system, suppression of carcinogenesis, metastasis, thrombosis, and allergic reactions. The optimal dose of fatty acids ômega-6/omega-3 should range between 1:1 to 4:1, depending on the health condition. It is essential to reduce the intake of omega-6 to prevent  and monitor chronic diseases, therefore, the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 is very important for human development and homeostasis. The potential intake of omega-3 depends on the presence of these in popular products such as bread. This paper will evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics and fatty acids compostion of this type of bread made with wholemeal perilla, emphasizing omega- 3 fatty acids contents.
AIMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proximate composition, fatty acids and antioxidants in wholemeal perilla and transferring of constituents to the pan bread formulated with different proportions of wholemeal perilla. Assess the impact of
substitution of wheat flour by wholemeal perilla through the analysis of instrumental color, specific volume and sensory attributes. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The development of pan breads with different proportions of wholemeal perilla, analysis of the chemical composition and instrumental color of that flour and final products were performed in the laboratories of Bakery and Food Chemistry of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná,
Campo Mourão. The breadmaking process followed El-Dash (1978) methodology. Three formulations were developed with wholemeal perilla instead of wheat flour: in 1% of substitution (F1), 3% (F3) and 5% (F5); the standard formulation without wholemeal perilla was called F0. Analyses of moisture, ash and raw protein were performed according to Cunnif (1998). The instrumental color evaluation followed CIELab scale. The determination of specific volume of breads was made based on the method of El-Dash et al. (1982). Nifext fraction was determined by difference. Total lipids were determined according to Bligh and Dyer (1959). The transesterification of lipids and chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters were performed at the Laboratory of Food Chemistry, State University of Maringá. The transesterification of lipids was performed according to Hartman and Lago (1973), modified by Maia and Rodriguez-Amaya (1993).The separation of fatty acids methyl esters was performed by gas chromatography. Fatty acids were quantified by internal standardization and the calculations were made according to Joseph and Ackman (1992); the identification of fatty acids was performed by comparison of retention times with standards and according to Visentainer and Franco (2006) methodology. The pan breads have been evaluated according to Monteiro (2005) about the flavor, aroma, crumb color, texture, appearance and overall acceptance; the acceptability indexes calculations were made according to Lawless and Heyman (2004); the tests were conducted in the Laboratory of Sensory Analysis, State University of Maringá. The content of natural antioxidants was performed using the methanol extract of wholemeal perilla and breads prepared. Total phenolic compounds were analyzed by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, described by Naczk and Shahidi (2004). The method of Eberlin (2009) was used to analyze the content of flavonoids. The antioxidant activity was determined by the free radical DPPH, as described by Brand-Williams et al. (1995), modified by Miliauskas
et al. (2004). The tests were conducted in triplicate, with the exception to instrumental analysis of color, which was done in five replicates. The results were expressed as mean and its standard deviation. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey's test at 5% significance level using Statistica software, version5.1 (1996).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The levels of raw protein and total lipids found in wholemeal perilla were 24.18 and 40.12%; that values are close to those reported by Sharma et al. (1989) e Przybylsk (2005). The use of wholemeal perilla in developing of pan breads had little effect on the ash (1.47, 1.58, 1.60 and 1.69% for F0, F1, F3 and F5, respectively); raw protein content (10.20, 10.32, 10.05 and 11.02% for F0, F1, F3 and F5, respectively) and promoted a significant increase in total lipid products (1.89, 2.25, 2.84 and 3.27% for F0, F1, F3 and F5, respectively). There was an increase of the caloric value of bread, but statistical difference was shown only for the formulation F5. The calories per serving of 50 g (two slices) of F0, F1, F3 and F5 correspond, respectively, 6.51, 6.56, 6.57 and 6.73% of the Recommended Daily Value, which is 2000 kcal. As for the content of fatty acids, there was a
predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids of wholemeal perilla: 62.25% corresponded to omega-3 and 16.1% to omega-6 fatty acids, and the n6/n3 ratio reason found was 0.26. To the flour n6/n3 ratio found was 16.09. Considering the ratios obtained for the two flours, it was evident that the replacement of wheat flour by wholemeal perilla is advantageous to nutritional aspects. The interesterified soyabean oil used to manufacture the products presented 0.5% of trans fatty acids and was within the legal standards required for "zero trans" products. The addition of wholemeal perilla to bread formulations positively affected the ratio n-6/n-3, whose value improved from 1.60 to 11.27 in F0 to F5. There was a significant reduction in the concentration of saturated fatty acids among the four formulations of bread; this reduction was due to the fact that wholemeal perilla has 2.6-fold less palmitic acid content of the wheat flour. The values of saturated fatty acids per serving for each type of bread produced correspond to 0.32, 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 g to F0, F1, F3 and F5. The levels found to trans fatty acids corresponded, per serving, to values lower than 0.2 g, therefore, the Brazilian law classifies the products obtained as "zero trans". Significant increase in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in bread due to the increased content of alpha-linolenic acid, the main fatty acid present in the total lipids of wholemeal perilla. Per serving, the levels found of omega-3 fatty acids in F0, F1, F3 and F5 were 0.03, 0.09, 0.21 and 0.33 g, which corresponded, respectively, for adult male 1.88%, 5.63%, 13.13% and 20.63% of the American recommended daily intake. For adult female, the contents were 2.73, 8.19, 19.09 and 30.00%, respectively, for F0, F1, F3 and F5. As for the instrumental assessment of color, the replacement of wheat flour by wholemeal perilla resulted in darker crust, but there
were no significant difference between F1, F3 and F5. The color of the crumb part is similar between F0 and F1 and between F3 and F5. The specific volume of breads differed significantly (5.13, 4.63, 4.41 and 3.86 cm3.g-1 to F0, F1, F3 and F5, respectively), indicating that the higher the percentage of replacement of wheat flour by wholemeal perilla, the lower the specific volume of the resulting products. The sensory evaluation showed that the formulations F0 and F1 are equal, as well as F3 and F5 in all attributes. The formulation with the highest acceptability index was F1 (88.89%). The other formulations showed 86.67, 78.67 and 74.78% for F0, F3 and F5, respectively. The frequency of favorable responses for intention to purchase was equal to 88.00% for F1, 85.60% for F0, 71.00% for F3, and 69.00% for F5. As for the content of total phenolic compounds, there were no significant difference between F0 and other formulations and antioxidant activity was not detected in the products produced.
CONCLUSIONS. The replacement of wheat flour by wholemeal perilla in bread developing promoted changes in chemical composition, mainly on the content of total lipids. There were significant changes in fatty acid composition between the formulations, especially in the content of saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated, omega-6 and omega-3. Was observed significantly increase on the levels of omega-3 fatty acid in formulations with wholemeal perilla, decrease on the levels of omega-6 fatty acids and reducing the values of ratio n-6/n-3, making products more nutritious for human consumption . The addition of perilla in the form of wholemeal, did not cause significant increase in phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in the final products. The formulation with substitution of wheat flour at 1% showed the better acceptability index and the higher frequency of favorable responses to purchase intent. This formulation did not differ from the standard in sensory attributes, instrumental color and possessed amount of omega-3 enough to
supply 5.63 and 8.19% of the American recommended daily intake of alpha-linolenic acid, for adult male and adult female, respectively.
Key words: pan bread, perilla, omega-3 fatty acids

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