Orientador: Prof. Dr. Elton Guntendorfer Bonafé

Data da Defesa:10/06/2020

INTRODUCTION. Fatty acids (AG) are distributed in all tissues of living organisms. They received special attention, considering that the quantity and quality of AGs consumed in the diet play different roles in the physiological processes. Currently, the demand for food products enriched with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) and long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 LC-PUFA) has increased. It is due to its beneficial effects on human health. In particular, LC-PUFA n-3 modulates cell membrane permeability and reduces thrombosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory diseases and neurological disorders. The consumption of marine fish oil rich in n-3 LC-PUFA content used as a food supplement stimulated production in the pharmaceutical industry. EPA and DHA are generally marketed as triacylglycerol ester (TAG) or ethyl ester (EE). Thus, the uptake of different chemical forms of n-3 LC-PUFAs contained in fish oil supplements must be investigated. In this study, EPA and DHA in two different forms in diet were evaluated regarding the liver, brain, muscle, and epididymal WAT tissues FA composition through the incorporation of TAG and EE forms in the diet of mice.
AIMS. The aim of the study was to investigate the behavior of different forms of omega-3 fatty acids (TAG and EE) in diets manipulated for mice based on results obtained from advanced technical analytical techniques such as GC-FID.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Six-week-old male Swiss mice weighing approximately 35 g were employed in the experiments. After a three-day acclimation, the mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: The control group received a diet containing lard and soybean oil as a lipid source (SB group). The EE group received swine lard and fish oil in the form of EE as a lipid source (EE group). The TAG group received lard and fish oil in the form of TAG as a lipid source. With this procedure it was possible to determine which forms of TAG or EE, incorporated in the diet is capable of influencing the composition of FA in liver, brain, muscle, serum and epididymal WAT. The animals were submitted to the treatment period of 56 days. Food intake was assessed daily. After the respective treatment period, the animals were weighed and fasted 15 h before euthanasia. The mice were euthanized and the livers, brains, muscles, and epididymal WAT were collected, quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored in a freezer at -80 °C. Serums from all animals was also collected and was used for analysis of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. FA methyl esters (FAMEs) were separated and quantified on a Thermo Scientific gas chromatograph. The FAMEs were identified by comparison to the retention times of the sample constituents with Sigma FAMEs.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Fish oils enriched with EPA and DHA have commercialized in triacylglycerol and free ester forms. Thus, for the first time, we evaluated the influence in the fatty acid composition of liver, brain, skeletal muscle, and epididymal WAT in mouse´s model fed with different chemical structures of n-3 long-chain fatty acids like EPA and DHA. The evaluated parameters after intake of the different diets were: initial body weight, body weight gain, brain weight, liver weight, epididymal WAT weight, gastrocnemius muscle weights, blood glucose, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol levels. The statistical test showed no difference between groups. Furthermore, the accumulation of DHA for different tissues was proving due to changes in the fatty acids composition in comparison with diet control. The incorporation in the skeletal muscle of DHA was over 100% in the TAG and EE groups in comparison with the control group.
CONCLUSIONS. In this way, we conclude that EPA and DHA in the form of EE or TAG influence the FA composition of different tissues.
Keywords: omega-3; chemical forms; EPA; DHA; fish oil.

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