Orientador: Prof. Dr. Lauro Vargas

Data da Defesa: 26/03/2015



Homeopathy is a complementary and alternative medicine system and has user-friendly applications and extensive clinical literature. Homeopathic products are manufactured by dynamization, which consists of sequential dilutions by stirrings in small volumes and has applications to both human and animal diets. Homeopatila 100® is a homeopathic complex designed to decrease stress in production and guarantee the well-being of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Tilapia is the second group of fish most produced worldwide and marketing grows an average grow 10% per year. The world aquiculture production forecast for 2030 ranges among 79 and 110 million tons of fish, including significant growth in the production of Nile tilapia. Hence, it is desirable to develop products that enable the use of processing waste for human consumption. The filleting residue has 60-70% of the total weight of tilapia. The use of mechanically separated meat (MSM) enables the use of 14% of the fish total weight. The nuggets are restructured, breaded and prepared from the flesh disintegration by mechanical methods. The manufacture of these products with MSM uses the processing residues, avoids health and environmental problems and adds commercial value to the final product. This study aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics and microbiological quality of fillets, nuggets and MSM and to analyse sensory the fillets and nuggets of tilapia that consumed Homeopatila 100®. With the Nile tilapia we evaluated two diets: one control with 40 mL of a hydro-alcohol solution 30% v/v per kg of diet and the other Homeopatila 100® with 40 mL / kg of the homeopathic product. The tilapia had average weight of 101.12 g (±17.73) and 99.73 g (±19.85) and total average length of 18.52 cm (± 6.00) and 18.05 cm (±1.11), respectively, 160 fish were distributed in 8 water tanks, totaling 20 animals in each of the boxes with individual capacity for 600L of water. Physical and chemical parameters of water and the performance of the fish were evaluated (they were killed after 84 days of treatment). At the end of the experiment, all fish were caught by nets, sensitized and killed by breaking the spine and obtained the fillets. The fillets were immediately vacuum-conditioned in smooth transparent nylon bags and frozen at -18 °C until nugget preparation. The MSM was retrieved and stored in polyethylene bags, separately each of the treatments, frozen at -86 °C and stored at -18 °C. During the experiment the physical and chemical parameters of the water and the fish performance were evaluated. Were realized physical, chemical and microbiological analyses of fillet and MSM and sensory analyses of fillet were performed. The nuggets were performed on three formulations with 25, 50 and 75% of MSM for each of the treatments. The stability of formulations were evaluated through analysis of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) (on days 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120). Microbiological analyzes were conducted to coliforms were evaluated at 45 °C, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase, Bacillus cereus, counting viable aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic and Salmonella sp., and acceptance of attributes color, aroma, tenderness, taste and overall impression were evaluated, using 9-point hedonic scale and also Buying Intention, test the 5-point ranging. There was no significant difference (p>0,05) between the physical and chemical characteristics of water. Fish fed diet containing the homeopathic product enhanced tilapia production Greater weight gain (207.16 g), fillets with softer tissue (6.08 N ± 0.04), higher Aw (0.990 ± 0.001), less total amounts of psychotropic aerobic bacteria (2.12 ± 0.01 Log10 UFC/g) and low component value of color L* (luminosity) (65.78 ± 0.37) and b* (yellow/blue) (1.50 ± 0.01) for MSM and of high value of a* (red/green) for MSM (13.54 ± 0.11) and fillets (4.93 ± 0.03). The sensory acceptability of the filet was 80.11% indicating that it exposed for sale have good acceptance by the market. The nuggets with 75% MSM revealed a higher pH (5.89 ± 0.02), the tissue was softer (1.29N ± 0.04), and they had a higher lipid value (15.96% ± 0.05). With 50% and 75%, the color (L* ) was darker (60.76% ± 0.91 and 60.03% ± 0.78), and there were lower protein amounts (15.54% ± 0.31 and 13.55% ± 0.35). Nuggets had an acceptable value of lipid oxidation (0.672 ± 0.007 mg MDA/kg). The results of fillet, MSN and nugget for the microbiological analyses demonstrated that the product met the requirements of legislation. The results of the colors of fillet and MSM these relate to the results fish stressed prior to slaughter. The results indicated that the use of Homeopatila 100® in the diet of the Nile tilapia did not change the muscle quality, ensuring consumer acceptability. Nuggets with 25% and 50% MSM were deemed acceptable. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the control treatment group and the Homeopatila 100® group for the analysis undertaken with the Nugget. Therefore, the results indicated that the use of Homeopatila 100® in the diet of the Nile tilapia did not change the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory quality characteristics of the nuggets. Keywords: tilapia, co-product, aquaculture, homeopathy, technology, quality.


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