Título da Tese: Ora-pro-nobis, caracterização e aplicação em produto extrusado

Orientador: Prof. Dr. Antonio Roberto Giriboni Monteiro

 Data da Defesa: 17/05/2019



INTRODUCTION. In the exploration of the lands throughout the world by the population growth and increase of demand, some plants were more widespread and thus considered like foods of the daily use. Other species were set aside and their consumption limited to regional peoples, these plants were then considered as unconventional foods. The term PANC was created in 2007 by biologist and Professor Valdely Ferreira Kinupp and refers to all the plants that have one or more edible parts, which were spontaneous or cultivated, native or exotic that are not included in our daily menu. The Ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeta Miller and Pereskia grandifolia Haw - PG), a native plant of the tropics, a species of cactus, commonly found in the northeastern region in the country, is considered one of these species used as food. Authors at times have already identified that this plant has a high content of proteins and fibers in its leaves, as well as the absence of toxicity. The Pereskia aculeata can be seen, according to the RDC No. 54/2012, a functional food because of its high protein content (approximately 25%) with high digestibility (80%), which is the main target feature as a source for the technological improvement of already existing foods with little nutritional value. AIMS. The objective of the work was to develop a food product with its improved nutritional value by adding the flour of the ora-pro-nobis leaves. In one of the studies, the viability of the process and the evaluation of the differences between the families Peréskia aculeta Miller and Pereskia grandifolia Haw were evaluated in the addition amount of 5 and 10%. Having verified the viability, the other study evaluated the production and acceptance of a snack with addition of Pereskia grandfolia Haw, in addition quantity of 10 and 20%, as well as to test its acceptability by hedonic scale sensorial analysis with untrained tasters. MATERIAL AND METHODS. In both studies samples with different concentrations between amount of leaf addition were processed, in table 1 and table 2 are the compositions of each article respectively. Sample Preparation CM 100% corn grit CPA 90% corn grits + 10% leaf flour Pereskia aculeata Miller CPG 90% corn grits + 10% leaf flour Perskia grandfolia Haw Table 1. Description of the preparation formulations of each sample, and both samples were used with 20% addition of water. Sample % corn % leaf flour Padrão (CM) 100 0 Fomulação 1 (C10) 90 10 Formulação 2 (C20) 80 20 Table 2: Added amounts of corn grits and leaf meal in each formulation, in both formulations there was an addition of 3% water. In both works, ready samples were preconditioned at a moisture content of 3%, prior to the process, which occurred steadily, without changing the parameters of the extruder. The extrusion was performed in the IMBRA RX50 (INBRAMAQ, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil), with a single thread of 50 mm in diameter and 200 mm in length. The matrix used had two 3 mm diameter holes and the parameters were set with the motor amperage at 20 A and the system feed at 15 g / s. The cut was performed at 120 rpm. Subsequently, the extruded final product was homogenized and dried in a rotary drum at 60 ° C. Samples used in the preparation of the Snack were submitted to the flaking process to add flavoring and salting, containing 4% of the herbal mix and 2% of sodium chloride. The dehydrated herbal mix was composed of 25% dehydrated parsley, 15% dehydrated oregano, 10% dehydrated chives and 50% sodium chloride, the ingredients were ground and homogenized. RADIAL EXPANSION INDEX The radial expansion index (IE) was calculated according to Mercier et al. (1998), by the ratio of the mean diameter of the extrudate to the diameter of the extruder die, in 10 different expanded products, for each treatment. The diameter was measured using a digital caliper (Marberg, Mb-300, São Paulo). The calculation of (IE) is represented in Equation 1. (1) SENSORY ANALYSIS The sensorial analysis was performed in the Laboratory of Analysis of the Department of Food Engineering at the State University of Maringá, using 100 untrained tasters. The experimental protocol was approved by the research Ethics Committee of the State University of Maringá (registration no. CAAE 18718013.3.0000.0104). Samples of approximately 5.0 g were served in randomly encoded disposable plastic cups and the test was done with each taster evaluating the three samples individually and in sequence. Each taster received three samples, dentified by random codes, and used the hedonic scale, structured of nine points, ranging from 1 (I really disliked it) and 9 (extremely liked) to evaluate the taste, texture and color attributes of each sample. (Monteiro, 2005). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The obtained data were statistically evaluated from the analysis of variance (ANOVA), with a subsequent analysis of the means by the Tukey test at 5% probability using the SISVAR program. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. When comparing the protein values of PA and PG leaf meal, it is possible to observe a statistical difference between them, however, if we compare with previous studies we can observe that the values are above the values previously found. In studies with PA, Silva et al. (2005) reported high protein contents of 24.73%, a value below that found in the present study, demonstrating a high protein quality in PA leaves cultivated in the Maringá region. The same behavior was observed in the study by Rocha et al (2008), who obtained 22.93% protein in the dehydrated flour of the leaves of PA. Lima (2016) in their study on leaves and stems of PG, obtained the result of 16.70% and 7.38% and for leaves and stem, respectively, values very close to that found in the present study. When observed the protein value in the extruded product, having the same degree of inclusion, we noticed that the samples do not differ from each other, however, they differ from the control sample containing only corn in its formulation, where there is an average increase of 32% in the content of proteins, a satisfactory result since the inclusion was only 10% by total weight of raw material. An important factor to be observed when comparing the standard snak constituted only of maize with the others, plus flour from the ora- pro-nobis leaves, a significant increase in its contents of compounds of high nutritional value was observed, an increase as indicated above, for crude fiber the value increased approximately 14-fold from the standard. For values of ash and lipids, the values showed an increase, however, they did not differ statistically from the standard, which shows that the addition of this flour is of technical and nutritional viability, producing a snak with added value. In relation to the extrusion test, this was performed to evaluate the feasibility of adding the leaf meal for the further development of new products. For the test performed the final product had a tolerance of 10% of addition, because above this value the expansion of the final product did not occur. Being, therefore, the addition of this fully feasible value. Therefore, the present study aimed at the use of snack inclusion and the evaluation of its acceptance. CONCLUSIONS. Key words: Snack, Ora-pro-nobis, nutricional, extrusion


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