Título da Tese: Avaliação das propriedades funcionais da semente de Moringa oleifera Lam para usos em sistemas alimentícios

Orientadora: Profa. Dra. Angélica MarquetottiSalcedo Vieira

 Data da Defesa: 27/08/208



INTRODUCTION The demand for healthier and less processed foods has been receiving more energy, has attracted the attention of consumers and especially the industry, boosting the search for new technologies and products. The present study had as objective to evaluate the action of the Moringa seed extraction method in the elaboration of a model. For that, the impact of the addition of different fractions of Moringa seeds saline extract by ultrafiltration in fermented yogurt by probiotic lactic acid culture was evaluated. In order to evaluate the power of Moringa additives, texture, ph, total protein content, microbial counts, microbiological assays, rheological tests, and scanning electron microscopy, were marked for a period of four weeks of storage refrigerated the results revealed that the strawberry extracts showed the lowest values of synergy, higher protein contents, higher values of consistency index and higher casein network, when compared to the control. This study was published as a potential application of Moringa seeds extracts as intensive agents in food systems, which could be a new option in the market for natural food additives. AIMS This study was evaluative techniques, microbiological and physical-methods of hydrogenated additives of Moringa extract, containing components from different concentrations in different concentrations MATERIALS AND METHODS The Moringa seeds were peeled, having been improved in greenhouse and later grinding and sieving. Next, a saline extraction was performed using NaCl. The extract was submitted to ultrafiltration with exclusion range of 30 kda. In the first study the pressures used in the ultrafiltration process were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 bar. The images of the extracts were added to the probiotic system in the images of 0.5% and 1.5% (v / v), generating a total of fifteen treatments. Analyzes of ph, titratable acidity, susceptibility to syneresis, rheology and microstructure were explored. In the second quarter a pressure of 1.5 bar was used during the ultrafiltration process, obtaining two distinct fractions, concentrated and permeated, differing in relation to the molecular weight of the proteins present in the versions fractions. Giogute was produced with a probiotic culture. Fractions (concentrate and permeate) coinciding with ultrafiltration were included in the original proposal, varying in 1%, 5% and 10% (v/v), resulting in samples C1, C5, C10, P1, P5, P10 and control without addition of Moringa). The protein document of the different yogurt treatments was determined. Susceptibility to syneresis is followed by four weeks. Bacterial microbiology was performed by counting yoghurt dairy communications from serial decimal dilutions. The evaluation of the texture was performed with the aid of the TA.XT (stable micro systems) analysis and as a rheology analysis during the weeks, in triplicate with the use of the Thermo Haake Mars rotary rheometer. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION No first assay can be considered as an integral Moringa additive (mia). When a pressure of 1.5 bar was used, a small concentration of protein was obtained in the permeate fraction. The highest phenolic content (12.78 ± 0.21 mg eag / ml) was found for mia, with the main components of Moringa having low molar mass. Titratable acidity values ranged from 0.80 ± 0.025 to 1.11 ± 0.022 175 g lactic acid / 100 g yogurt over the storage time, which is consistent with the determined parameters. Changes in acidity during choice of factors such as initial product activity, storage temperature and the acidification power of the crop. The ph values ranged from 4.66 ± 0.02 to 4.22 ± 0.02 during the storage period, and are in accordance with the recommendations for diagnosis. The highest ph values were reached to supplement with Moringa additives in relation to the increase of solids generated by the measurement of the extract in relation to the control. The highest values of protein were found in the most recent Moringa diagnoses, with values varying from 3.12 to 3.20 g / 100g. The addition of protein in the aid formulation helps to improve the structural cohesion of the products. In this study, the synergism was detailed affected by Moringa additive concentration, with lower sensitivity values were 10.31% and 11.05%, for Moringa permeate additives (MPA1.5%-p1.5) and (MPA1.5%-p1.0), respectively. Rheologically, the values of consistency index (K) were higher for samples incorporated with Moringa additive as compared to the control sample, especially the MPA1.5% -P1.5 sample, which obtained the highest consistency index. The samples that presented higher values of K had lower syneresis values than the control sample, demonstrating that the higher the consistency index, the lower the syneresis values. In microscopy it is clear that the added yoghurts of Moringa permeate additive presented a more cohesive structure when compared to the control sample. In the second study the results of the physical-chemical analyzes were within the values considered normal, demonstrating that the addition of Moringa extract does not characterize such product. It should be noted that the addition of extracts significantly influenced the protein content of yogurts, especially C5. In the microbiological analyzes it was observed that for S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus microorganisms, the count remained within the limit of 7 log UFC until the fourth week of storage, therefore within the parameters. The bifidobacterium sp was also in agreement with some studies; in addition, it can improve physico-chemical, rheological properties, reduces syneresis and increases hardness parameters in yoghurts due to the production of exopolysaccharides. In relation to the results found for syneresis, it is verified that the values presented range from 5 to 21% of serum separation. The addition of Moringa protein significantly affected syneresis values, especially the P1 treatment, which showed synergism of only 5.01%. By means of these experiments it can be observed that the higher the percentage of added extract is concentrated or permeated, the syneresis levels increased, but in none of the samples was obtained a higher percentage than the control sample. The different yoghurt samples were analyzed for some texture requirements, such as hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity and adhesiveness. It was observed that the addition of Moringa extract contributed in general to an improvement in the evaluated parameters. For the parameter of hardness, the sample P1 presented superior results to the others, being then considered that the addition of permeate in the concentration of 1% (v/v) increases the hardness in products like yogurt. The samples C5 and P1 stood out from the others in the analyzes of elasticity and cohesiveness. The values of cohesiveness. The average values for yogurt adhesiveness ranged from -0.133 to -0.95 N.s. In the rheological analyzes it was noticed that the samples added of the lower concentrations of both the permeate extract and the concentrate presented higher apparent viscosity than the other samples. Highlighting the sample P1, which reached the highest values during the four weeks of storage and analysis, having an average apparent viscosity of 23527.98 Pa.s. CONCLUSION CONCLUSION Based on the functional analyzes of the concentrated extracts and Moringa seed permeate applied at different concentrations in the natural yoghurt, it can be concluded that they presented good characteristics in relation to the decrease of the susceptibility to syneresis, improvement in texture properties such as hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, and satisfactory results were also observed in the rheological analysis. In this way, Moringa seed extracts can be used in a large part of the processed dairy products, aiming to improve some properties, such as texture, as well as reducing losses due to defects such as syneresis. Knowing that the aqueous extract of Moringa is totally natural its use in the food industry would provide several benefits, but more advanced research needs to be performed before the use of these extracts. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Yogurt, additive, functional property, ultrafiltration.


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